The ruins of Adobe Walls, one-time saloon, fort, and trading post with the Plains Indians was the 1864 site of the largest battle between the Indian and the U.S. Army. Some three hundred army troops, mostly cavalry, were led by famous western explorer, Indian agent, fighter and trapper Christopher (Kit) Carson. Not only was it the largest battle between the Indian and U.S. Army, it was the only time the army was forced to withdraw. Why withdraw? Because Carson and his New Mexico and California volunteers were outnumbered ten to one by their combined Kiowa, Comanche, and Arapaho enemy. Had it not been for Carson's command ability, a greater massacre than the Little Big Horn would have occurred.