In the half century after the Second World War, oncology has developed greatly both in the world and in China. There are three traditional major treatments: surgery, which has been used to treat tumors for more than a hundred years; radiotherapy, which has been used for ninety years; and chemotherapy, which has been used for nearly seventy years. In the 1980s, there was the rise of biological therapy and immunotherapy. The effects of oncological therapy have made a lot of progress. Many tumors have achieved good results, but there are still many solid tumors whose efficacy are still very poor.
In 1985, the author followed up more than three thousand patients who had undergone the general surgical operation and thorax surgical operation. The results showed that most patients relapsed and metastasized within two to three years after surgery. Some patients even relapsed in a few months. This made me deeply realize that surgery is successful and standardized, but the long-term effect is not satisfied or that the long-term treatment is a failure.