“Modern Christianity in the Holy Land” is a modest contribution to the documentation of the history of our country. In the nineteenth century, the structure of the Churches underwent change. Christian institutions developed in the light of the Ottoman Firmans and the international relations forged by the Ottoman Sultanate. At that time, the systems of the millet, capitulation, international interests and the Eastern Question were all interlocked in successive and complex developments in the Ottoman world. Changes to the structure of the Churches had local and international dimensions, which need to be understood to comprehend the realities governing present-day Christianity. At a local level, the first law governing the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate was promulgated and the Orthodox Arab issue surfaced. Moreover, the Latin Patriarchate was re-established and the Anglican Bishopric was formed. Most of these events occurred in Jerusalem and their consequences necessarily extended to the various parts of Palestine and Jordan. This history is not restricted to the Churches and the study touches on public, political, social and economic life, Christian-Muslim-Jewish relations, the history of the clans and ethnic groups, the ties that neighboring countries forged with the Holy Land, and the pilgrimage to the Holy Places. This pilgrimage is one of the most prominent features of the Holy Land. Indeed, the Lord has blessed this land and chosen it from everywhere else in the world for his great monotheistic revelations as God, Allah, Elohim. The sources and references of this book are diverse in terms of color, language and roots. One moment they take the reader to Jerusalem, Karak, Nazareth, and Salt and at other times to Istanbul, Rome, London and Moscow.